ReDriver / Repeater IC Signal Conditioners
Redriver, also known as repeater IC, regenerates signals to boost the signal quality of high-speed interfaces. Faster signal frequencies leave designers with less signal margin in which to design reliable, high-performance systems. Using equalization, pre-emphasis, and other technologies, a single redriver can adjust and correct for known channel losses at the transmitter and restore signal integrity at the receiver. This results in an eye pattern at the receiver with the margins required to deliver reliable communications with low bit error rates.
Redrivers (repeater IC) are a key technology for addressing the rising design complexity that the higher data rates of today’s high-speed interconnects introduce across every industry and protocol. To enable better signal integrity throughout the signal chain, Pericom provides redrivers based on its industry-leading signal conditioning technology. Redrivers offer better performance then protocol-based signal repeaters which act as an endpoint that must terminate and then retransmit the signal, thus introducing delay and added system cost. In addition, redrivers minimize jitter by conditioning and passing signals through at the physical layer.
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ReDriver / Repeater IC Signal Conditioners Details
Pericom’s redrivers address the five major issues negatively impacting the signal integrity of high-speed interfaces:
Signal Attenuation: High-speed signals, including differential signals, introduce noise and jitter that causes signal voltage swings to overshoot or undershoot the optimal eye opening. This results in a degraded signal during high-speed signal switching.
Signal Strength: Interfaces are increasingly being integrated into CPU chipsets. While providing excellent performance in the lab, many of these chipsets are often not strong enough to provide reasonable design margin to meet compliance specs when designed into real-world systems with multi-layer boards, long traces, and extended cable lengths.
Signal Distance: Layout constraints, controller-to-connector separation, multiple PCB layers, vias, daughterboard connectors, and extensive cable lengths all contribute to signal distance and greater signal degradation. For example, signal losses over FR4 PCB traces are typically 0.3dB per inch at 2.5 Gbps and 0.9 dB at 8 Gbps.
Noise: Both random and deterministic noise degrade signal integrity from a variety of sources, including crosstalk from other signals. Another common source of random jitter is a noisy clock source that does not have good isolation or has impedance mismatches.
Lack of end-to-end control: When an interface connects to an external subsystem or device, designers do have not control over the signal distance, board vias, connectors, and cables over which the signal must still pass to reach its destination. This can increase noise, jitter, attenuation, and insertion losses, and cause otherwise well-designed devices to fail to interface to equipment from other manufacturers.
The challenge for OEMs is that, as signal speeds increase, these factors become more pronounced, causing reliability, throughput, and quality to suffer. To help developers maintain signal integrity, Pericom offers unparalleled signal conditioning technology with a comprehensive portfolio of devices for PCI Express, USB, Thunderbolt, SAS/SATA, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, HDMI, and other popular standards. Benefits include:
Superior Signal Quality: Pericom redrivers have the lowest jitter and attenuation for the highest performance in the industry. Comparative studies are available under NDA.
Lowest Crosstalk: By minimizing crosstalk, Pericom keeps channel-to-channel and part-to-part skew low.
Highly configurable: To provide developers greater flexibility, Pericom’s redrivers can be configured on a per channel basis via an MCU over I2C rather than having to be pinstrapped or hardwired like other technologies.
Power Efficiency: These devices are architected for both low power operation and efficient power consumption. For example, Pericom’s SAS/SATA redrivers consume less than 100 mW per channel and have the best power efficiency on the market.
Multi-port: Pericom’s redrivers support a variety of multi-channels configurations, providing flexibility while enabling greater integration and cost savings.
Multi-protocol: Pericom is the only manufacturer in the industry to offer a comprehensive portfolio of redrivers that work in both SATA and SAS environments.
Flexible packaging: Pericom’s redrivers come in a variety of packaging options to meet the specific cost, performance, and power needs of your application. With devices on the order of 4 mm x 4 mm, these redrivers can be placed close the interface connector to minimize signal losses.
Improving signal integrity increases the overall signal margin of systems. OEMs can use this increased signal margin to:
- Improve signal reliability and robustness
- Increase the maximum trace distance and/or cable lengths over which signals can reliably be run
- Reduce the number of board layers required to isolate signals effectively and substantially lower system cost
- Ensure connectivity regardless of the quality of the external device to which a system is connected
- Increase flexibility to simplify design, speed time-to-market, and reduce system cost by being able to use lower precision components elsewhere in the signal chain.
Pericom is the market leader in redriver technology across applications, including networking, embedded computing, and communications, among others. For example, in the server market, Pericom was the first redriver manufacturer to achieve SATA3 compliance, and its technology has been adopted in more than 80% of server storage designs. Pericom’s redrivers are also part of many controller vendor reference designs, including Intel.
As part of its commitment as the signal integrity leader, Pericom offers unparalleled design support to its customers, including availability of evaluation boards, professional schematic and layout review, and system simulation to optimize the key opening using S-Parameter models, AMI-IBIS, or HSPICE.
High speed SAS 2.0, SATA 3.0, PCIe 2.0,PCIe 3.0, USB 3.0, DP 1.1 and DP 1.2
- Increased signaling distance
- Increased design flexibility
- Standards compliance
- Improved performance
- Increased reliability
- Reduced PCB & cable cost
- Unique, differentiatted products to maximize the protocol's potential
ReDriver / Repeater IC Signal Conditioners FAQs
- Are Pericom PCIe 3.0 ReDrivers compatible with PCIe 1.0 & 2.0?
- Are the TMDS pair lines of Pericom IC swappable?
TMDS lines of Pericom IC are swappable. However, equalization setting of TMDS CLOCK may be fixed in some parts. After swapping the TMDS pins, the equalization setting of TMDS DATA might be limited by the equalization setting of TMDS Clock.
- Can HPD pin be connected to +5V pin at HDMI connector directly in sink application?
Per HDMI Spec 1.4, HPD should be pulled high to +5V through a 1kΩ resistor in an HDMI sink device.
- Can I swap TMDS clock and TMDS Data paths of PI3HDMI301 due to layout complexity?
Yes, TMDS clock and data of PI3HDMI301 or PI3HDMI201 are swappable. However, as the equalization of TMDS clock is fixed to 3dB in the design, the equalization setting of TMDS data has to be set to 3dB for balancing all TMDS data if swapping.
- Can I swap TMDS clock and TMDS Data paths of PI3HDMI336 due to layout complexity?
No. As PI3HDMI336 carries clock detection feature in TMDS clock path, TMDS clock and data cannot be swapped.
- Can I swap TMDS clock and TMDS Data paths of PI3HDMI621 due to layout complexity?
No. As [partcode=PI3HDMI621] carries clock detection as well as RxSense features in TMDS clock path, TMDS clock and data cannot be swapped. PI3HDMI521 with same function but different bonding diagram may help to soothe the layout complexity problem.
- Can Pericom provide Spice model for simulation?
Pericom can provide customer with spice model for simulation per customer’s request.
- Compared with DP1.1a, what do we need to take care of DP1.2 layout?
DP1.2 optionally supports FAUX transactions, the bit rate of FAUX is 270Mbps which is 270 times higher than Manchester transaction; hence, the AUX channel differential trace needs to be impedance controlled in 100ohm.
- Do Pericom active Switch support RxSense feature?
PI3HDMI101(-A) supports RxSense feature. With a detection scheme implemented in PCB, output TMDS of PI3HDMI101(-A) will be turned off if Sink termination is absent.Please refer to Pericom application note AN215.
To save some external components and circuitry, a built-in detection circuit, which offers RxSense feature, is implemented in PI3HDMI101-B.
- Do we have Evaluation boards available?
Yes. They are available for particular product lines. Please contact Pericom Inside Sales Dept to verify availability.
If available, evaluation boards have to be ordered through Prochannel.
- Does Pericom have a dual-mode DP ReDriver to drive HDMI1.4a?
Yes, PI3HDMI511 is a ReDriver that can support HDMI1.4a. Please be reminded that AC coupling capacitors must be employed at TMDS traces before entering PI3HDMI511.
- Does Pericom PCIe ReDriver™ include a PCIe CLK buffer?
Pericom PCIe 1.0 ReDriver™ does include a PCIe CLK buffer but neither the PCIe 2.0 nor 3.0 ReDriver includes a
PCIe CLK buffer.
- Does Pericom provide PCIe ReDriver's simulation model and reference circuit?
Yes, Please contact your sales representative for simulation model and reference circuit. or contact Pericom Customer Support.
- Does USB 3.0 SuperSpeed ReDriver™ support low power mode?
Yes. Pericom USB 3.0 Super-speed ReDriver™ automatically goes into low power mode (slumber mode) when the input detector finds input in idle for longer than 1.3 seconds. The device can be forced into low power mode through EN_x pins.
- How can Dual Mode DP Source Device detect whether the sink device is DP device or HDMI/DVI device?
Pin 13 (Cable Adaptor Detect) on source DP connector is used for the DP Source device to determine whether the Sink device is DP or HDMI/DVI device; if the Cable Adaptor Detect pin is low level, it is DP Sink Device; if the Cable Adaptor Detect pin is high level, it is HDMI/DVI Sink Device
- How can I enhance the ESD at PI3HDMI301 output?
As PI3HDMI301 or PI3HDMI201 was designed for sink application, TMDS outputs were connected internally. Thus, high ESD protection was not embedded.
External ESD protectors should be employed if encountering ESD issue in source or switch box application. For details, please refer to AN347.
- How can I improve the eye diagram of PI3VDP411LSR?
PI3VDP411LSR offers flexible slew rate setting. To soothe the reflection due to trace impedance mismatch, slower slew rate can be chosen.
- How can we connect HDMI/DVI Sink Device to Dual Mode DP Source Device?
Source-Side Cable Adaptor is needed to connect between Dual Mode DP Source Device and HDMI/DVI Sink Device. Refer to VESA DisplayPort Interoperability Guideline.
Please go to http://www.vesa.org/ for reference document.
- How do I know if a device has been obsoleted? I am unable of find the datasheet on the Pericom website.
If the datasheet is not found on Pericom's website, it is a strong indication that the part has been obsoleted. there are several ways to find out. The first method would be to check on the Product Detail page for your particular product choice, if there are related PDN notices, they will show up on the tab, marked "PDNS".
Alternatively go Discontinuation Notices to search for the part number.
- How do I know the PCIe ReDriver™ is already linked up with the CML output device?
- How do I know the PCIe ReDriver™ is working and signal is passing through the ReDriver IC?
- How do you "wake up" the PI3EQX7701 USB3.0 ReDriver™?
The input signal detection and output squelch functions of Pericom PI3EQX7701 are provided for each channel.
When signal detect for a channel is idle for longer than 1.3 seconds, the channel will enter slumber mode. In the slumber mode, the signal detect still monitors the input channel continuously. If a channel is in low power mode and a input signal is detected, the ReDriver will send a wake-up signal to both channels. Both channels will wake up and perform receiver detection again. The device can also be forced into low power mode through the use of the EN_x# pins, which will require the use of GPIO pins to control.
- How long can the PCB trace extend after adding the Pericom USB 3.0 ReDriver™?
Pericom PI3EQX7841 EQ can compensate 15dB loss (at 5 Gb/s), which shall extend the trace to more than 30”. The total trace length also depends on the topology, discontinuity structure and the de-emphasis setting for the ReDriver™.
- How long can the PCB trace extend using a Pericom USB3.0 ReDriver™?
Pericom PI3EQX7701 EQ can compensate 5 db and 11db loss (2.5 GHz or 5 Gb/s).
- How long the PCB trace can extend using a Pericom PCIe ReDriver™?
Please refer the AN233, page 5 and page 9.
- How many signal levels and pre-emphasis levels are being used in DP?
There are four Differential Peak-to-peak output voltage levels (1 – 4) which is 400mV, 600mV, 800mV and 1200mV respectively; and there are also four pre-emphasis levels, which is 0dB, 3.5dB, 6dB and 9.5dB respectively.
- How to wakeup USB 3.0 ReDriver™?
In the slumber mode, the input signals are in idle status with the voltage swing below the detection-threshold of the USB ReDriver™ will go into low power mode and make output in high impedance, but the input keep to monitor the signals. When the input signal is in active over the threshold, The USB ReDriver will wake-up work normally. The device can also be forced into low power mode through EN_x# pins.
- I am unable of find the datasheet on the Pericom website.
If the datasheet is not found on Pericom's website, it is a strong indication that the part has been obsoleted. Try the search tool on the Pericom website: http://www.pericom.com/support/quality/discontinuation-notices/ or contact your regional sales office.
- Instead of using few EEPROMs at input HDMI connectors, can only one EEPROM be implemented at Scaler in HDTV?
Per HDMI requirement, EEPROM is readable in power off condition. In other words, if DDC lines from HDMI connector can pass through Pericom switches and read the EEPROM at Scaler when only standby power is present in HDTV and when +5V is supplied from HDMI connector, one EEPROM implementation at Scaler is allowable.
- Is Pericom USB 3.0 ReDriver™ compatible with USB 2.0?
No, USB 3.0 connector has different dedicated pins than USB 2.0’s. USB standard-B specifies receptacle interfaces have two options: the USB 2.0 interface and the USB 3.0 SuperSpeed interface.
- Is Pericom's USB3.0 ReDriver™ compatible with USB2.0?
No. USB 3.0 uses different connect pins from USB 2.0's. The USB 3.0 Standard-B receptacle interfaces are divided into two sets of interfaces: the USB 2.0 interface and the USB 3.0 SuperSpeed interface. The USB 2.0 interface is comprised of pins 1 to 4, and the USB 3.0 SuperSpeed interface is comprised of pins 5 to 9. The figure below shows the footprint of USB3.0 found in "Universal Serial Bus 3.0 Specification Version 1.0_Page 5-19_Figure5-8".
- Is PI3EQX77XX pin-to-pin compatible with other vendors' parts?
No, it does not provide pin-to-pin compatibility with other vendors' devices.
- Is there a replacement for an obsolete part?
Not all obsolete parts will have a direct replacement. However, we recommended that you contact your regional sales office.
- Is there any Application Notes for PCIe ReDrivers?
- Is there any layout guideline for high speed signaling?
Yes, please refer to application note AN345.
- Is there any pull up/down resistor needed on Dual Mode DP Source Device on Pin 13 of cable adaptor detect?
1Mohm pull down resistor on Pin 13 is needed on Dual Mode DP Source Device.
- What are the types of jitter?
There are several types of jitter, but the main ones are: cycle-to-cycle jitter, period jitter, half period jitter, and peak-to-peak jitter. Jitter terminology can be found in AB36: Jitter Measurement Techniques at Application Brief No. 36 or Application Note No. 27.
- What controls are provided by the PCIe ReDriver?
Both I2C and GPIO controls are provided.
- What does de-emphasis control mean?
Emphasis control can improve USB3.0 ReDriver's output signal.
The integrated de-emphasis circuitry provides flexibility and improves the integrity of USB3.0 output signal after ReDriver.
The de-emphasis selection table below describes pin strapping options and associated de-emphasis operations. This table can be found in datasheet, page 3.
- What does emphasis control mean?
Emphasis control improves the PCIe ReDriver output signal.
- What does EQ control mean?
EQ control can improve the USB3.0 ReDriver's input signal. The integrated equalization circuitry provides flexibility and improves the integrity of the USB3.0 input signal before the ReDriver. The Equalizer Selection table below describes pin strapping options and associated operations of the equalizer. This table can be found in PI3EQX7741AI datasheet, page 3.
- What does swing control mean?
Swing control can adjust the ReDriver IC output swing level.
- What is clock detection feature of a Pericom HDMI device?
Clock detection is to check if there is input TMDS clock frequency entering the Pericom HDMI device. It there is none but noise, Pericom HDMI device will enter power down mode to save power.
- What is cycle-to-cycle jitter?
Cycle-to-cycle jitter is the difference in the clock's period between two consecutive cycles and is expressed in units of + pico-seconds. This is because it can be either leading or lagging from the ideal output waveform.
- What is RxSense feature of a Pericom HDMI device?
If TMDS 50Ω termination in a receiver is not present, a sink device is assumed not being plugged. Thus, all input TMDS 50Ω terminations of the Pericom HDMI device will be turned off for saving power.
- What is the AC coupling capacitor values used in AUX and Main Link in DP application?
The AC coupling capacitance is 75nF to 200nF for AUX channel and is 100nF for the main link.
- What is the application suitability comparison between a switch and a logic driver?
A switch is a passive device with C-on and R-on that will attenuate the signal. A logic driver is an active device that will refresh an input signal at output by its active driving ability. Thus, compared to a logic driver, the maximum frequency of an application using a switch is limited by the trace length and the capacitive load. It is recommended to use a logic driver for applications with heavy capacitive load, long trace and high frequency.
- What is the AUX channel circuit configuration difference between DP and eDP?
As eDP is embedded display application, there is no DP cable hot plug/unplug event; hence, there is no pull up and down resistors on DP source and sink devices to assist detection.
- What is the impedance range for USB3.0?
The range of the impedance is from 75Ω to 105Ω.
- What is the lead finish for Pericom products? What about lead-free?
All Pericom's products that are not lead-free are composed of 85% Sn and 15% Pb. For lead-free products, they are composed of 100% matte Sn. Lead-free products are marked and ordered with the letter "E" suffix at the end of the part number.
- What is the lowest power supply available at DP_PWR pin of DP Source Device?
The minimum supply power available at the DP_PWR pin of DP Source Device must be 1.5W at +3.3V.
- What is the minimum input swing level that a Pericom PCIe ReDriver can accept?
The minimum input swing level is shown in the specification "CML input Differential Input Peak-to-peak Voltage" and some ReDrivers can automatically select the input threshold voltage.
- What is the purpose of the equalization of USB 3.0 ReDriver™?
The equalization at the input will boost the higher frequency loss caused by the input trace and cable, then cancels the deterministic jitter reaching at the input of the ReDriver™.
- What is the significance of the EQ control?
EQ control can improve the PCIe ReDriver input signal.
- What is the trace impedance for USB 3.0?
The differential trace impedance is in the range from 85 Ω +/- 13Ω.
The connector impedance is in the range from 75 Ω to 105Ω.
- What is the value of AC coupling capacitor for SATA/SAS?
In general, AC coupling value is 10nF in 0402 package. Higher bit rate needs smaller AC coupling cap. value, but still at least >4.7nF.
- What protocols are supported by Pericom's Signal Integrity Products?
PCI Express 1.0 and 2.0; SATA/SAS/XAUI; HDMI/DVI, DisplayPort; and USB. Combine our ReDriver signal conditioning solutions with our timing solutions for a complete signal integrity solution.
- What the purpose of the De-emphasis of USB 3.0 ReDriver™ PI3EQX7741/7841?
The De-emphasis is for output of PI3EQX7741/7841, which will pre-compensate the high frequency loss caused by driving output trace and cable, therefore cancels the data stream related deterministic jitter at the input of receiver.
- When the client-side returns a feedback packet to the host side, will Pericom's PCIe ReDriver block the packet or require control?
No, Pericom PCIe ReDriver will not block any PCIe signals. The ReDriver only enhances gains of the data voltage without changing the data. The host always sees the end-point directly. Pericom ReDriver is "100% transparent", which means the "host" and "end-point" do not detect the presence of the ReDriver.
- Where can I find Mean Time Before Failure (MTBF) or Failures In Time (FIT) values for Pericom products?
FIT and MTBF data can be found at Pericom's Quality webpage.
- Where can I find the information on your Pb-free and "Green" packaging?
Lead (Pb)-Free and Green information can be found on individual datasheets or Pb-Free & Green Page.
- Where should the 100kohm pull down/up resistors on AUX+/- be placed?
The 100kohm pull down / pull- up resistors on AUX+/- should be placed between Pericom DP Redriver and DP connector to comply the DP Compliance Test.
- Why do the SCL and SDA paths of PI3VDP411LS design do not transmit signals between source chipset and sink device?
Please check if proper SCL and SDA (DDC) pull-up resistors were mounted. 1.5kΩ to 2.0kΩ pull-ups to +5V at DDC sink side of PI3VDP411LS per HDMI specification should be employed. Weaker pull-ups, 10kΩ for instance, at source side of PI3VDP411LS should be chosen in order not to affect the pull-ups at sink side.
- Why there is no TMDS signal passing through PI3VDP411LS?
Is there any TMDS signal at the input side of PI3VDP411LS while there is no TMDS signal at the output? If this is the case, please ensure OE# pin is tied to low externally and is not floating. Or is the HPD of your source chipset active low? If yes, PI3VDP411LST instead of PI3VDP411LS should be selected for your design.